All but one were driven from their dioceses. In response to the several anticlerical decrees, Portuguese bishops launched a collective pastoral defending the Church's doctrine, but its reading was prohibited by the government. This resulted in him being called to Lisbon by Afonso Costa, where he was stripped from his ecclesiastic functions. The secularisation peaked with the Law of Separation of the State and the Church on 20 April ,  with a large acceptance by the revolutionaries.
Dr Camillia Cowling
The law was only promulgated by the Assembly in , but its implementation was immediate after the publishing of the decree. The Portuguese Church tried to respond, classifying the law as "injustice, oppression, spoliation and mockery", but without success. Afonso Costa even predicted the eradication of Catholicism in the space of three generations. On 24 May , Pope Pius X issued the encyclical Iamdudum which condemned the anticlericals for their deprivation of religious civil liberties and the "incredible series of excesses and crimes which has been enacted in Portugal for the oppression of the Church.
A major concern of the new republican government was recognition by other nations.
In , the vast majority of European states were monarchies. Only France , Switzerland and San Marino were republics. For this reason, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Provisional Government, Bernardino Machado , directed his agenda exercising extreme prudence,  leading him, on 9 October , to communicate to diplomatic representatives in Portugal that the Provisional Government would honour all the international commitments assumed by the previous regime.
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Since marshal Hermes da Fonseca personally witnessed the full process of transition of the regime, having arrived in Portugal on an official visit when the country was still a monarchy and left when it was a republic,  it is not unusual that Brazil was the first country to recognise de jure the new Portuguese political regime. On 22 October the Brazilian government declared that "Brazil will do all that is possible for the happiness of the noble Portuguese Nation and its Government, and for the prosperity of the new Republic".
Less than a month after the revolution, on 10 November , the British government recognised de facto the Portuguese Republic, manifesting "the liveliest wish of His Britannic Majesty to maintain friendly relations" with Portugal. However, de jure recognition of the new regime only emerged after the approval of the Constitution and the election of the President of the Republic. The French Republic was the first to do it on 24 August ,  day of the election of the first president of the Portuguese Republic.
History of Portugal
Owing to the tensions created between the young Republic and the Catholic Church , interaction with the Holy See was suspended, and the Holy See did not recognise the Portuguese Republic until 29 June From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: British Ultimatum. This section needs additional citations for verification.
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- Direito Constitucional Português: Identidade Constitucional;
- Ultimatum de 11 de Janeiro by Antero de Quental.
- The Slow Bicycle Companion.
- Mud, Sweat and Beers.
- Ultimatum de 11 de Janeiro by Antero de Quental - Free Ebook.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Lisbon Regicide. Manuel II .
Main article: Flag of Portugal. Archived from the original on 19 January Archived from the original on 15 May Archived from the original PDF on 23 April Archived from the original on 22 June Lisboa: Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda. Soberania do Povo. Archived from the original on 30 September Retrieved 30 August Archived from the original on 30 December Retrieved 27 August O Partido Republicano [ Retrieved 26 September Retrieved 23 July Campanhas coloniais de Portugal, — Livra Portugal.
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Archived from the original on 29 January Farol da Nossa Terra. Retrieved 4 September Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda. Retrieved 31 August Braga, Universidade do Minho, Carvalho Coimbra: Minerva. Coimbra: Universidade de Coimbra. Retrieved 3 September Archived from the original on 14 May Mundo Portugues. Archived from the original on 28 August Archived from the original on 2 March Archived from the original on 7 August Manuel II. Documentos" PDF. Hemeroteca Digital.
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Archived from the original on 20 September Archived from the original on 7 December Archived from the original on 8 May Archived from the original on 4 September Archived from the original on 29 September Retrieved 17 December Archived from the original on 20 January Olho Vivo. Tinta Fresca. Dia 3 Out".
Archived from the original on 25 September Lisboa: Terra Livre.
XX, XII. Dia 4 Out". Retrieved 8 September Retrieved 1 September Porto, Livraria Figueirinhas, , vol. IV, pp. Retrieved 5 September Retrieved 15 September Carlos passa-se para os republicanos". Retrieved 22 September Lisbon: Verbo. Capim Margoso. Archived from the original on 29 June Guia do concelho de Mafra.
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A modern Portuguese wank
Archived from the original on 6 March Archived from the original on 9 August Archived from the original on 12 June Archived from the original on 11 October Archived from the original on 2 October Archived from the original on 18 January Correios de Portugal. Archived from the original on 7 March Archived from the original on 2 December Archived from the original on 3 February Archived from the original on 13 October Retrieved 1 August Totalitarianism and Political Religions.
Jodi Bruhn. Archived from the original on 8 September Retrieved 2 September Archived from the original on 18 November Retrieved 23 September Economy Military. November - Contract signed to establish oceanic submersed cable between Portugal and the U. July - Outbreak of yellow fever in Lisbon killing some 5. June - Serious flooding destroys a third of agriculture crops. January - Portugal negotiates a loan of 5 million pounds from Britain.
Coalition period of three years of two main political parties. December - Wine from the Douro is allowed to be freely exported. December - Foundation of Reformist Party - headed government in July - Massacre at Massangano - First of many battles against rebel leader Bonga without success Riots in Porto and the birth of the movement known as "Janeirinha". July - Republicans meet in Lisbon and the arrest of Gomes Leal. Hermenegildo Capelo journeys from east to west across Africa Angola to Mozambique. Beginning of military campaigns in Angola to combat local rebels. Beginning of military campaigns in Mozambique to combat local rebels.
Beginning of military campaigns in Guinea to combat local rebels. May - Portugal and France sign an agreement recognising Portugal's claim to its territories in Africa. Portugal publishes its famous "rose-coloured" map of Africa which immediately raised objections from England. October - First football game organised in Cascais with public attendance.
August - Anti-British riots in Porto by Republicans in the tobacco industry. Bank of Portugal declares country on verge of bankruptcy - this financial situation lasts for two years. October - First female student accepted by Coimbra University. Germany attempt to take control of parts of Portuguese territory in Africa - England blocks this move by offering a further loan to Portugal - Lord Salisbury, Prime Minister of Britain also has designs on access across Mozambique to the Transvaal area in Africa.